The government also announced plans to make vaccinations mandatory from February 1 next year.
The national lockdown starting Monday will last for 10 days minimum, and could be extended for a further 10 days, Schallenberg told reporters at a news conference in Vienna.
The move comes only days after Austria imposed lockdown measures for all those age 12 and older who are not fully vaccinated against Covid-19.
Around 65% of Austria’s population is fully vaccinated against Covid-19, one of the lower rates in the European Union where cases are surging.
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